MINYAN

MINYAN (Heb. מִנְיָן; "number"), designation for the quorum of ten male adults, aged 13 years or over, necessary for public synagogue service and certain other religious ceremonies. The Talmud (Ber. 21b; Meg. 23b) derives this number from the term edah ("community"), which in the Scriptures is applied to the ten spies (Num. 14:27). Thus ten men constitute a congregation. The Talmud (Ket. 7b) also mentions Ruth 4:2 and Psalm 68:27. Some relate the rule to Abraham's plea to God to save Sodom if at least ten righteous men were found there (Gen. 18:32). On the basis of Psalm 82:1: "God standeth in the congregation of God," the Talmud explains that if ten men pray together, the Divine Presence is with them (Ber. 6a). This quorum of ten adult males is necessary for the following sections of the public synagogue service: The repetition of the Amidah with Kedushah, the pentateuchal and haftarah reading, priestly benedictions (Meg. 4:3), and the Kaddish. Some also require a minyan for the recital of the Barekhu invocation; others permit this to be said even if only six or seven males are present (Sof. 10:6). The accepted custom in emergency cases is nine adults and a boy holding a Bible (based on PdRE, 8; see Tos. Ber. 48a and Sh. Ar., OH, 55:4). A quorum of ten is also necessary in the rites of comforting the mourners (ma'amad u-moshav; Meg. 4:3; Meg. 23b). The recital of the seven nuptial blessings at wedding ceremonies and the special invocation preceding grace there ("Let us bless our God of whose bounty we have eaten") also require a minyan (ibid.). Ten male adults constitute a quorum in any place, and there is no need for a synagogue building or an officiating rabbi to hold divine services. In talmudic times, a community was regarded as "a city" if there were at least "ten idle men" (not occupied by work or other duties) who could come to each synagogue service to make up the minyan (Meg. 1:3). R. Johanan said, "when God comes to a synagogue and does not find a minyan there, He is angry, as it is written (Isa. 50:2). 'Wherefore, when I came, was there no man? When I called, was there none to answer?'" (Ber. 6b). In traditional congregations, especially in Eastern Europe, when it was difficult to hold daily services with a minyan, it was customary to pay a few old or idle men to be present twice a day at the services. These people were called "minyan men." In Reform, Reconstructionist, and most Conservative practice at the beginning of the 21st century, women were counted in the minimum quorum of 10 persons required to constitute a public prayer service, since they had full religious equality with men. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Eisenstein, Dinim, 239ff.; Elbogen, Gottesdienst, 493ff.; JE, 8 (1907), 603; JL, 4 (1930), 203ff. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. Biale, Women and Jewish Law (1984), 21–24; S. Freehof, Reform Jewish Practice, 1 (1948), 49–52; D. Golinkin. The Status of Women in Jewish Law: Responsa (2001).

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • minyan — [min′yən, min yän′] n. pl. minyanim [min΄yä nēm′] or minyans [MHeb minyan < TalmudHeb, orig., number, quantity < root mnh, to number, count] a properly constituted group for a public Jewish prayer service, made up of at least ten Jewish… …   English World dictionary

  • Minyan — Min*yan (m[ e]n*y[aum]n ), n. (Jewish Relig.) A quorum, or number necessary, for conducting public worship. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Minyan — This article is about the term in Judaism. For other meanings, see Minyan (disambiguation). Minyan Halakhic texts relating to this article: Torah: Leviticus 22:32 Mishnah: Megillah 4:3 …   Wikipedia

  • Minyán — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar …   Wikipedia Español

  • minyan — Seph. /meen yahn /; Ashk., Eng. /min yeuhn/, n., pl. minyanim Seph. /meen yah neem /; Ashk. /min yaw nim/, Eng. minyans. Hebrew. 1. the number of persons required by Jewish law to be present to conduct a communal religious service, traditionally… …   Universalium

  • Minyan — /min yeuhn/, Class. Myth. adj. 1. descended from Minyas. 2. being or pertaining to a gray, wheel thrown pottery produced in ancient Greece during the early part of the Helladic period, c2000 B.C. n. 3. Minyans. Also, Minyae /min yee/. the… …   Universalium

  • Minyan — Miniane Dans le judaïsme, le miniane est le quorum de dix hommes adultes nécessaire à la récitation des prières les plus importantes de tout office ou de toute cérémonie (circoncision, mariage, deuil... ) : tout garçon ayant fait sa Bar… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • minyan — noun (plural minyanim or yans) Etymology: Hebrew minyān, literally, number, count Date: 1753 the quorum required for Jewish communal worship that consists of ten male adults in Orthodox Judaism and usually ten adults of either sex in Conservative …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • minyan — [ mɪnjən] noun (plural minyanim mɪnjənɪm) a quorum of ten men over the age of 13 required for traditional Jewish public worship. Origin C18: from Heb. minyān, lit. reckoning …   English new terms dictionary

  • minyan —    a traditional Hebrew unit of quantity equal to 10, the number of males aged 13 or over required for a Jewish worship service. (In many modern congregations, both males and females can be included in a minyan.) …   Dictionary of units of measurement

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